Monitoring the hygienic quality of underground water in different localities in Egypt and Libya

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Toxicology and Forensic Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Beni-Suef University, BeniSuef 62511, Egypt

2 Department of Hygiene, Management and Zoonoses, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef 62511, Egypt

3 B.V.Sc. Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural sciences, Zawia University, Libya


th: 0px; "> The present study was carried out in six provinces in both Egypt and Libya throughout the
period from January to October 2014. These areas were (Beni-Suef, Ismailia, and Matrouh
district) in Egypt and (Tripoli, Zliten, and Zawia district) in Libya. To assess the hygienic
quality of underground water sources intended for animal and human drinking and detect
the source of pollution. The physicochemical parameters as pH, alkalinity (mg/l), electrical
conductivity (μS/cm), total hardness (mg/l), hardness Ca+2 (mg/l), hardness Mg+2 (mg/l),
ammonia (mg/l), nitrite (NO2-) (mg/l), nitrate (NO3-) (mg/l) and some heavy metals (Pb,
Fe, Cu, Cd, Cr, Zn and Mn) in the underground water were determined. A total of 60 water
samples of the underground water were collected from dug wells. Samples were
investigated for assessment the physicochemical quality of water destined for human
and/or livestock consumption using appropriate instruments for the estimation of metals
in the underground water using atomic absorption spectrometer. It has been revealed that
a significant increase in mean values of alkalinity (P<0.001) in Ismailia district, Egypt and
Zawia district, Libya. Meanwhile, the total hardness showed a significant increase in Tripoli,
Zliten and Zawia districts of Libya (367.8±23.73, 345±17.20 and 330±20.19 mg/l,
respectively). Mean values of lead (Pb) were higher in Tripoli and Zliten districts, Libya and
Matrouh and Ismailia districts, Egypt (0.03±0.1, 0.02±0.3, 0.02±0.07 and 0.02±0.04,
respectively). Meanwhile, mean values of cadmium (Cd) were the highest in the three
Libyan districts (0.24± 0.003, 0.22±0.07 and 0.012±0.006 mg/l, respectively). In conclusion,
the absence of unified system to monitor physicochemical parameters in ground water
sources in the studied areas represented an important task in the evaluation of such water
sources and subsequently causing an environmental risk for both animals and humans


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