Toxo-pathological effects induced by urea in broiler chicks

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Beni Suef University, Egypt

2 Department of Pathology and Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Assiut University, Egypt

3 Deparment of Forensic Med. and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Assiut University, Egypt


Sixty, day-old, chicks were reared up to 3 weeks of age and then randomly divided into 4 equal groups (3 treated and one control group). Urea (46 % nitrogen) was added to the grower-finisher ration of the treated birds at levels of 1% , 3% and 5% (groups I, II & III respectively). Feed and water were available ad libitum for all birds over the time of experiment. At days 7, 20 and 30 post exposure, 5 birds from each group were weighed, bled and sacrificed. All birds spontaneously died during the experiment were also necropsied. Haematological parameters (RBCs, WBCs counts, PCV and Hb), biochemical variables [urea, glucose, uric acid, alkaline phosphatase; (ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase; (LDH)] and body weight gain were assessed. The encountered pathological changes were described. The obtained results indicated that: (1) decrease in RBCs, WBCs counts, PCV and Hb, (2) increase in ALP, LDH, urea and uric acid, while glucose level was decreased. (3) decrease in body weight gain in all treated birds. There were significant pathological changes in kidneys, heart, liver and lungs of the treated birds. It was concluded that addition of urea to poultry feeds to replace the more expensive protein-nitrogen has serious consequences which affect the health condition and weight gain of birds.


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