Clinical evaluation of epidural bupivacaine, butorphanol, and butorphanol - bupivacaine combination in goat

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Surgery, Anesthesiology and Radiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef 62511, Egypt.

2 Department of Animal Medicine (Veterinary Internal Medicine), Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, BeniSuef University, Beni-Suef 62511, Egypt.


0px; "> Butorphanol is a synthetic opioid commonly used for epidural anesthesia in human
either alone or in combination with bupivacaine but not in goat. The objective of the
present study was to evaluate the analgesic effect of epidural butorphanol either
alone or in combination with bupivacaine. Fifteen adult apparently healthy goats
were randomized into three equal groups to receive a lumbosacral epidural injection
of bupivacaine 0.5 % (0.5 mg/kg), butorphanol 1% (0.08 mg/kg) or their
combination (bupivacaine 0.25 mg/kg and butorphanol 0.04 mg/kg). Animals were
observed for incoordination of hind limbs, perineal pin prick and sedation at 10
minutes interval. Heart rate, respiratory rate and rectal temperature were assessed
every 15 minutes. Epidural butorphanol resulted into significantly (P < 0.05) rapid
analgesia (9.8 ± 1.1 Min) than the butorphanol– bupivacaine combination (12.8 ±
0.84 Min) and bupivacaine (16.6 ± 0.55). Butorphanol-bupivacaine combination
provoked significant ((P < 0.05) prolonged intense analgesia (208 ± 8.36 Min)
compared to either bupivacaine (112 ± 8.37) or butorphanol (166 ± 5.48 Min).
Ataxia accompanied administration of bupivacaine either alone or in combination
with butorphanol, while sedation was observed in animals received butorphanol
alone or combined with bupivacaine. No significant changes were observed in heart
rate, respiratory rate or rectal temperature. The epidural administration of
butorphanol-bupivacaine combination promoted longer-lasting analgesia in goats
without motor disturbances compared to bupivacaine alone. This combination might
prove useful clinically to provide analgesia in goats for long-duration perineal
obstetrical or surgical procedures.


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